AAUS guidelines 2021 revision sexually transmitted infection (STIs) diagnostic strategy for STI

Published:November 17, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2021.09.002
      World Health Organization (WHO) declared STI as “one of five types of disease for which adults around the world most commonly seek medical help.” According to WHO report, there were several key facts in Sexually Transmitted infection (STI) More than one million STI occur every day, an estimated 376 million chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and trichomoniasis infections occur each year. In 2016, the total incidence of STI was 376 million per year, including 127 million chlamydia cases, 87 million gonorrhea cases, 156 million trichomoniasis cases and 6 million syphilis cases, showing an increase compared to that reported by Rowley et al. [
      • Rowley J.
      • Vander Hoorn S.
      • Korenromp E.
      • Low N.
      • Unemo M.
      • Abu-Raddad L.
      • et al.
      Global and regional estimates of the prevalence and incidence of four curable sexually transmitted infections in.
      ,
      • Organization W.H.
      Report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance.
      ]More than 500 million people have genital infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV1 or HSV2) [
      • Looker K.J.
      • Magaret A.S.
      • Turner K.M.
      • Vickerman P.
      • Gottlieb S.L.
      • Newman L.M.
      Global estimates of prevalent and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in 2012.
      ]. Approximately 300 million women have a human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and this number is likely similar in men [
      • de Sanjosé S.
      • Diaz M.
      • Castellsagué X.
      • Clifford G.
      • Bruni L.
      • Muñoz N.
      • et al.
      Worldwide prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with normal cytology: a meta-analysis.
      ]. The majority of STIs occur without symptoms. Some STIs can increase the risk of HIV acquisition three-fold or more. STIs can have serious consequences beyond the immediate infection itself, through mother-to-child transmission of infections or conditions such as infertility and cervical cancer. Drug resistance for gonorrhea is a major threat to control this STI worldwide [
      • Unemo M.
      • Golparian D.
      • Eyre D.W.
      Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and treatment of gonorrhea.
      ].

      Keywords

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